Table of Contents

The Studio

Devices, instruments and connections

Rosegarden uses the term studio to refer to everything it knows about the sound systems attached to the computer. This may include MIDI and audio hardware and other sound software, and includes information about connections, configuration, MIDI patches and so on. The studio is built-in to every composition you create with Rosegarden.

Three pieces of terminology are essential here :


A “device”, as far as Rosegarden is concerned, is simply something capable of producing sounds. This may be a MIDI or audio device. MIDI devices do not necessarily correspond directly to physical MIDI ports: they are just things with names that you can refer to, expected to work in particular ways. Configuration information such as MIDI patch maps can be attached to devices.


Each device has a number of “instruments”, each of which is assumed to make a particular sound. These are the things that you can assign tracks to in order to choose which sound they play. By default, a device contains 16 instruments, created for you at startup: if the device is a MIDI device, then these will each be initialised to one of the 16 MIDI channels. The instrument is where you set all the properties of a particular voice, such as program settings, reverb, volume etc.


While a MIDI device is simply a name and a collection of configuration information, the “connection” specifies which MIDI port it is physically attached to. This can be configured in the MIDI device manager. (Audio and synth plugin devices do not have connections in the same way.)

For example, imagine a setup consisting of a PC with two physical MIDI ports, one of which has an external synth attached to it. Here you would normally configure Rosegarden so as to have one MIDI device, corresponding to the synth. You could then configure this device with the correct name and patch map, and then specify a connection for it that corresponded to the relevant MIDI port on your soundcard. Each of the 16 default instruments on the device could then be configured with a suitable program, and you would then assign tracks to those.

In practice, Rosegarden will by default create a device for each of the available connections on startup. So in the example above, two MIDI devices will be created by default even though you only need one. You would generally then rename and apply patch maps to the first, and delete or simply not use the second. Remember that there is no way for Rosegarden to know what synths you actually have plugged in to the MIDI ports on your computer: for this reason, the devices created at startup are just intended to be a default set, and it's up to you to ensure that the devices you configure match those you are really using.

Once configured, the studio setup is stored with every Rosegarden-format file you save.


The MIDIデバイスマネージャ

MIDIデバイスマネージャダイアログは、現在有効なMIDIデバイスとどこに繋がっているかを表示します。このダイアログを表示するためには、スタジオ→MIDIデバイスの管理(Studio → Manage MIDI Devices)を使います。

デバイス、インストゥルメントとコネクション セクションで説明されているように、規定値では、Rosegardenは起動時に、もっともらしいデバイスのセットを提供しようとし、それらのデバイスに対して理にかなったコネクションをしようとします。しかし、既定値の構成では、通常は最適ではないかもしれないので、このダイアログはデバイスの名前を変更し、それらのコネクションを変更し、再生/録音方向のコネクションを修正します。

各ここでリストされた再生デバイスは、通信(talk to)するためのMIDIトラックのためのターゲットを提供します。もしも、新しい再生デバイスを追加するならば、トラックに割り当てることができます。このデバイス上の16の新しいインストゥルメントを持つことができるでしょう。もしも、そのデバイスに対するコネクションを割り当てるならば、トラックはその接続に割り当てられた任意のMIDIシンセサイザーの適切なチャネル(インストゥルメント依存)で再生するために割り当てられます。



The MIDI bank and program editor





Percussion Key Mappings

Many MIDI synthesizers have at least one percussion program, in which each “pitch” plays a different type of sound. Rosegarden contains a dedicated percussion matrix editor to view and edit notes against a scale consisting of the correct names for the pitches, instead of against the conventional piano keyboard pitch scale.

The key mappings available for a particular MIDI device are also defined in the Rosegarden device (“.rgd”) file. Each MIDI program that is defined as a percussion program can have a key mapping associated with it; if there is one, then it will be used by default in any track that is assigned to this program. Like program and bank definitions, key mappings can be imported from and exported to .rgd files.


もしも、ソフトウェアシンセサイザーかSountFont(.sf2)ファイルを使うサウンドカードを使っているならば、このダイアログ中に、.sf2ファイルから正しいプログラム名を単純に直接ロードすることができます。 通常のインポートと同じように質問されたならば、rgdファイルの代わりに使う.sf2ファイルを選択します。

Note that the studio only manages information about existing MIDI devices for Rosegarden, it does not actually handle tasks such as loading a SoundFont to your soundcard in the first place. If you want to make sure a SoundFont is loaded to your soundcard when Rosegarden starts up, you should use the special “Load SoundFont to SoundBlaster card at startup” option in the sequencer configuration in Settings → Configure Rosegarden….


いくつかのMIDIデバイス(たとえばローランドからのもの)は、“variations”として知られているスキームを使うプログラム名を体系化しています。それらのデバイスのために、一般的には、- ピアノのような - 基本的なプログラム名を最初に選択することによってプログラムを選択したいでしょう。そして、次に、 - 電子ピアノ - のような、そのプログラム上での1まとまりのvariationを選択します。これは、一般的なMIDIベースのシンセサイザーと対象的であり、それはバンク中にそれらのプログラムを組織化し、バンクを最初に選択することを期待し、次にそのバンクからプログラムを選択します。

Rosegardenはvariationを使うデバイスをサポートできますが、バンクフォーマット中にプログラム名を入力しなければなりません。 内部的に、variationを使うデバイスはvariationsとの間で選択するために、MIDIバンク選択コントローラを使います。variationを選択するために、デバイスがLSBかMSBのどちらかのバンクセレクトを使うかを、シンセサイザーのドキュメントから見つけ出す必要があり、どのバンク番号がどのvariationに対応しているかを見つけ出す必要があります。次に、バンクを通常として、入力し、バンクダイアログ上の、“MSB/LSB上のVariationリストの表示”オプションを使い、Rosegardenにインストゥルメントパラメータボックス内でそのデバイスが表示されるときにバンクの代わりにvariationが表示するように伝えます。


コンポジションに MIDIファイルをインポートするとき、RosegardenはRosegardenのインストゥルメント上にMIDIプログラムをどのようにマップするかを決めるために、存在するスタジオの設定を使用します。この目的は、スタジオ中に実際に存在するマップされた1つのインストゥルメントを、すべてのMIDIプログラムが得ることを確実にすることであり、(そして、そういう理由で、実際にコンピュータに割り当てられます)そのため、すべてのMIDIトラックは聞くことができます。



Audio Routing

Any Rosegarden track assigned to an audio or synth plugin instrument becomes part of Rosegarden's audio routing architecture. There are 16 audio instruments and 16 synth plugin instruments, and each of these has a set of adjustable parameters including fader level, pan, effects and so on. These are generally configurable in the Instrument Parameter Box or audio mixer. Each audio instrument also has an input connection, and both audio and synth plugin instruments have an output connection.

An instrument's input connection defines where Rosegarden will read audio data from when recording to this instrument. The most usual setting would be to one of Rosegarden's external audio inputs, the number of which is configurable in the audio mixer. These correspond to JACK audio ports exposed by Rosegarden, to which you can connect outputs from any other JACK audio application or soundcard capture ports using an external JACK router application such as QJackCtl. You can also set an instrument's audio input to the output of one of Rosegarden's built-in audio submasters or master output for mixdowns.

An instrument's output connection defines where the audio goes when played. Instruments default to sending their audio to Rosegarden's master output, which is another (stereo pair of) external JACK port(s) that can then be connected up using the same external JACK router. However, Rosegarden also supports up to eight internal submaster busses, to which you can send instrument outputs instead so as to group instruments into related categories. You can control the number and routing of these in the audio mixer.

Rosegarden currently supports effects using a set of pre-fader insert effects slots for each audio instrument. You cannot yet assign effects to the submaster busses, and Rosegarden does not yet support send effects, although you can obtain similar results using an external JACK effects and mixing architecture.

Some further details of audio routing configuration, mixing, and effects are discussed in the audio mixer, instrument parameter box and audio plugins sections.

MIDI Routing

Rosegarden is able to instantly send incoming MIDI events to some output device and MIDI channel. This feature is known as MIDI Thru.

MIDI Thru is enabled by default in Rosegarden. You may want to globally disable it using the menu option Studio → MIDI Thru Routing, if you prefer to use an external MIDI routing system. There is also a global filter by MIDI event type, which you may use to ignore some event types and let other types to be routed. It is explained in the section MIDI filters.

MIDI Thru routing works quite differently when Rosegarden is playing or stopped than when it is recording.